(Lesson 2)Water Pollution and Its Effects!

What did we learn yesterday?

What do you think are the effects of water pollution?

Does water pollution have a direct effect on us?

Today you will be exploring the effects of water pollution on the environment and people.

(If children are at home, they will be watching the following video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h73DE33BrQ0)

 

LI: To learn about the effect of water pollution.

Do you know that only 1% of the water on the planet is freshwater?

The rest of the water is salty or it cannot be used because it is not suitable for drinking. Therefore it is important to understand that water pollution has a tremendous effect on the environment.

Pollution in the water can reach a point where there isn’t enough oxygen in the water for the fish to breathe. The fish can suffocate!

Sometimes pollution affects the entire food chain. Small fishes absorb pollutants, such as chemicals, into their bodies. Then bigger fishes eat the smaller fishes and get the pollutants too. Birds or other animals may eat the bigger fishes and be harmed by the pollutants.

Sewage can also cause major problems in rivers. Bacteria in the water will use oxygen to break down the sewage. If there is too much sewage, the bacteria could use up so much oxygen that there won’t be enough left for the fish.

It can make people and animals very sick.

Water pollution from major events like acid rain or oil spills can destroy marine habitats.

Factories often use a lot of water to process chemicals, keep engines cool, and for washing things away. The used wastewater is sometimes dumped into rivers or the ocean. It can be full of pollutants.

Pesticides are often sprayed on crops to kill bugs and herbicides are sprayed to kill weeds. These strong chemicals can get into the water through the runoff of rainstorms. They can also contaminate rivers and lakes through accidental spills.

 

Activity:

Children will be drawing a word map first (See Photo on the slide that displays major countries) and they will identify where and what kind of water pollution takes place. For example, New York will have a note next to it that identifies the sewage pollution in the Atlantic Ocean. Ask children where they think the industries (Oil, Chemical, Nuclear, Textile ect.) are and what would they contaminate. World Map HD Picture, World Map HD Image

Ext. 

What have you noticed from your activity? What do you think? What would you do to change the pollution of water?

This map could be used by the children to self-ass they work.

steel industry maps plant geography europe china middle east

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Lesson 1) Water Pollution, What is it?

What do you know about water pollution?

Why do we have water pollution?

Are only oceans and seas polluted?

How do we pollute rivers, lakes and oceans?

Water Pollution Facts, Types, Causes and Effects of Water ...

Water Pollution Facts, Types, Causes and Effects of Water ...

Water pollution - Wikipedia    6 Causes of Water Pollution and How to Stop It INFOGRAPHIC ...

LI: To learn about water pollution.

If you are at home, please watch the following video, which is interesting and informative at the same time.

Water pollution is when waste, chemicals, or other particles cause a body of water (i.e. rivers, oceans and lakes) to become harmful to the fish and animals that need the water to survive. Water pollution can disrupt and negatively impact nature’s water cycle as well.

Natural Causes of Water Pollution

Sometimes water pollution can occur through natural causes like volcanoes, algae blooms, animal waste, and silt from storms and floods.

Human Causes of Water Pollution

A lot of water pollution comes from human activity. Some human causes include sewage, pesticides and fertilizers from farms, waste water and chemicals from factories, silt from construction sites, and trash from people littering.

 

(For some more information on water pollution look at the following two websites about oil spills and acid rain:

oil spills: https://edition.cnn.com/2019/12/23/americas/galapagos-spill-intl-hnk/index.html

acid rain: https://www3.epa.gov/acidrain/education/site_students/whyharmful.html)

 

Activity:

Children will be creating a table where they will group the different causes of water pollution.

Water Pollution

Natural Causes Human Causes
   

Ext.:

To write your impression about water pollution, why it is a huge problem for humans and the environment.

 

 

 

(Lesson 3) What I Remember About Industrial Pollution!

LI: What I know remember about industrial pollution.

Industrial Pollution? What is it?

Industrial pollution of environment cartoon vector | Free Vector

This Diwali, don't let crackers mask the truth

Today’s lesson aims to consolidate the knowledge and understanding of the first two lessons taught this week. It is crucial that children have clear the fundamental elements that create industrial pollution, how the pollutant move into the environment, and how affect animals.

Activity:

Read the following article, which adds some more information to the topic of pollution, then look at the vocabulary if you are not sure and finally answer the questions below in your book.

Water, Air and Soil Contamination

air pollutionPollution is an environmental concern for people throughout the world. One university study suggests that pollutants in the water, air, and soil cause up to 40% of the premature deaths in the world’s population. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries.

Water in many developing countries is contaminated with toxic chemicals, also known as toxins. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.1 billion people have little or no access to clean water. In many of these regions the water that is used for drinking, cooking, and washing is the same water that is used for dumping sewage and hazardous waste. Most developing countries cannot afford water treatment facilities. Approximately 80% of infectious diseases in the world are caused by contaminated water.

Air pollution is a growing problem throughout the world. Indoor air pollution is one of the leading causes of lung cancer. Families in developing countries use open stoves for cooking and heating their homes. These homes do not have proper ventilation. The smoke, which is full of chemicals and carcinogens, gets trapped inside where families eat and sleep. Outdoor pollution also causes disease and illness, especially in industrial cities such as Beijing, China, where cancer is the leading cause of death. China relies heavily on coal, which is considered the dirtiest source of energy. According to the European Union, only 1% of urban dwellers in China breathe clean air on an average day. Neighbouring countries including Japan and Korea receive much of China’s pollution in the form of acid rain. This pollution results mainly from the coal powered factories, which produce inexpensive goods for North American and European consumers. Outdoor air pollution is also a concern in many wealthy countries. Those who live and work in urban centres such as Los Angeles or Toronto experience many warm days beneath a layer of smog.

Soil pollution is also a major concern, both in industrial and developing countries. Pollutants such as metals and pesticides seep into the earth’s soil and contaminate the food supply. Soil pollution causes major health risks to entire ecosystems. This type of pollution reduces the amount of land suitable for agricultural production and contributes to global food shortages. Dumping of industrial and domestic waste products produces much of the world’s soil pollution, though natural disasters can also add to the problem. In wealthy countries such as the US, protection agencies monitor the food supply. The public is generally warned before major disease outbreaks occur. Developing countries do not have this luxury. Farmers in poor nations grow food in contaminated soil both to earn a living and to avoid starvation.

As more people move to urban centres, premature deaths caused by pollution are expected to increase worldwide. Today, the developed nations who achieved their wealth at the expense of the environment will be held accountable for protecting the earth’s resources for future generations.

 

Let’s look at some of the key-vocabulary together:

Vocabulary

Word Meaning
acid rain noun rain that contains harmful chemicals that collect in the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned
carcinogen noun a substance that has been linked to causing one or more types of cancer
contaminated adj. has come in contact with organisms or substances that cause disease
developing country noun a nation that is working towards becoming more economically and socially advanced
domestic waste noun garbage that is produced by people in a household
dumping verb placing waste in an area that is not appropriate ( eg. dumping chemicals in oceans)
hazardous waste noun a form of garbage that is harmful to health of plants, animals or humans and requires careful disposal (eg. batteries or paint)
industrial adj. related to industry and the production of fuel, power and materials used to manufacture goods, esp. in factories
pesticides noun chemicals that are sprayed on crops to prevent insects from destroying them
pollutant noun a substance or material that damages the natural environment
pollution noun the contamination of the environment, esp. by industrial waste products and chemicals like pesticides
premature adj. happening before the expected or normal time
priority noun something that’s of most concern or the greatest importance
sewage noun human waste from toilets
smog noun air pollution caused by a reaction between chemicals in the atmosphere and sunlight
toxic chemicals (toxins) noun poisonous substances that can cause disease
ventilation noun the replacement of unclean air with fresh air

1. A university study suggests that up to 40% of the world’s premature deaths are caused by

 developing countries
 disease outbreaks
 pollutants

2. In many developing countries people use _______ contaminated by hazardous waste and sewage.

 water
 air
 facilities

3. _______ regions are often contaminated with air pollution.

 Chemical
 Carcinogenic
 Industrial

4. What do open windows and fans that extract smoke provide?

 contamination
 ventilation
 indoor pollution

5. The article implies that most of China’s air pollution is caused by

 Japan and Korea
 burning coal
 acid rain

6. According to the article, where is cancer the leading cause of death?

 Beijing
 Los Angeles
 the European Union

7. Which is NOT mentioned as a source of soil pollution?

 hazardous wastes
 use of pesticides
 smoke from factories

8. Soil pollution is a major concern in _______ countries.

 industrial
 developing
 industrial and developing

9. Industrial metals and pesticides seep into the earth’s soil and contaminate our

 food supply
 food shortages
 disease outbreaks

10. Premature deaths caused by pollution are expected to increase as more people move to

 developed nations
 urban centres
 country towns

 

Answers

1. pollutants
2. water
3. Industrial
4. ventilation
5. burning coal
6. Beijing
7. smoke from factories
8. industrial and developing
9. food supply
10. urban centres

 

Ext.:

List the major pollutant you have come across in the last two lessons;

List some of the effects of industrial pollution on humans.

 

(Lesson 2) More on Industrial Pollution

Start the lesson by asking the following questions:

What did we learn yesterday?

What are some of the polluting substances that generate industrial pollution?

Today we will carry on learning about industrial pollution by focusing on some other substances that affect the environment as well as its impact on the environment and creatures.

LI: To learn the impact of some substances on the environment and animals.

Industrial Effect on Environment – BLOGS

Environmental impact of paper - Wikipedia

Effect of Industrial Pollution on Crop Productivity | SpringerLink

 

While sharing with the children the information below, ask children to jot key information on their whiteboards to use it later on in their task.

 

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were developed in the 1930s. They are non-toxic, inert, non-flammable and very cheap to produce, and they were therefore soon widely used as a refrigerant, as a propellant in spray cans, and in insulation. In 1985, scientists for the British Antarctic Survey discovered a “hole” in the stratospheric ozone layer over the South Pole. This ozone protects against ultraviolet light from the sun and its depletion raises the risk of skin cancer and plant damage. CFCs are so stable that their emissions reach the stratosphere without breaking down, where they then participate in a series of chemical reactions whose end result is the destruction of ozone. CFCs are now being phased out, thanks to the Montreal Protocol of 1987, but the CFCs already in the atmosphere will continue to do damage for many years to come.

Another group of chemicals with a hefty environmental price tag is the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which toxic and hazardous substances. PCBs were once widely used in electrical equipment as an insulating material, but their production was banned in 1977 when it became clear that they could affect the liver, immune, and nervous systems of wildlife and humans. PCBs still persist in old electrical equipment and on sites contaminated by hazardous waste.

 

Health Impact

Health impacts of air quality

The effects of air pollution on human health

Future problems from industrial pollution could come from environmental estrogens, also known as endocrine disrupters. These chemicals, widely distributed in toiletries, plastics, and other everyday products, have an action like the female sex hormone estrogen on living cells. Their presence at even low levels in water resources has been linked with fertility and development problems in fish and falling sperm count in human males.

Water and air are both at risk from industrial pollution. Factories are point sources of pollution because emissions enter water from a specific location such as pipe or ditch, which at least makes them easier to monitor and regulate. Toxins in water may enter at a low concentration, but they are concentrated in the tissue of organisms as they pass up the food chain. People eating polluted fish may be putting their health at risk. A notorious example from the 1950s and 1960s is Minamata, Japan, where thousands were poisoned after eating shellfish containing mercury waste from a nearby chemical factory.

Pollution of the water supply need not be chemical in nature. Many industrial processes generate heat and use large amounts of cooling water, which may be drawn from the nearest river or lake. It is then returned to its source, possibly at a higher temperature if it has been insufficiently cooled beforehand. This artificial warming may have a deleterious impact on local ecosystems because aquatic organisms do not usually adapt well to rapid temperature change. Oxygen solubility decreases with rising temperature, putting species requiring high oxygen levels at risk.

Thick smogs and smokes resulting from industrial pollution are now less common in developed countries, thanks to tighter controls on emissions. The major industrial pollutants affecting air quality are sulfur dioxide, volatile organic solvents, and particulate materials, such as metal dust. Burning waste, particularly plastics, can also produce dioxins and other hazardous chlorinated compounds. Sulfur emissions form particles of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to make acid rain, which can damage surface water and trees many miles away from its source.

Once you have debated and shared the key information for today, before children get to their task, they will be watching a short video that will add some extra information on the topic.

Activity: Children will be using the information collected during the teaching input + class sharing of previous knowledge to create a summary of what industrial pollution is. (Display for them on the board key vocabulary that they  want to use, but they might not remember).

Ext:

Children to write their impressions, what they think and feel on this topic about the health impact of these substances.

 

(Lesson 1) Industrial Pollution: The Need to Understand!

A brief history of air pollution

LI: To understand and know about industrial pollution.

Let’s start with some questions to understand some of the vocabulary used and how much we know on the subject:

What does industrial mean?

What is industrial pollution?

What are the pollutants of industrial pollution?

What does industrial pollution affect?

The following short video is about a piece of American news on industrial pollution and how many factories do not follow the guidelines to protect the environment. Informative and a good introduction to the lesson.

What do you think about this piece of news?

Does it upset you, why?

While sharing with the children the information below, ask children to jot key information on their whiteboards to use it later on in their task.

 

Many industrial manufacturing processes use or produce chemicals that may harm people’s health or the environment.

For instance, paper pulp bleaching uses chlorine (Chlorine is a naturally-occurring chemical element, one of the basic building blocks of matter.) … Chlorine chemistry provides clean drinking water to millions around the globe. Clean drinking water made possible with chlorine disinfectants is a monumental triumph over the scourges of waterborne disease.

Its disinfection properties have helped improve the lives of billions of people around the world. Chlorine also is an essential chemical building block, used to make many products that contribute to public health and safety, advanced technology, nutrition, security and transportation.

Food, water and medicines, computers and cell phones all depend on chlorine chemistry. Chlorine chemistry also is used in the manufacture of numerous products ranging from contact lenses, air conditioning refrigerants and solar panels, to bullet-resistant vests, energy-efficient windows, paint, and prosthetics.

Chlorine is produced from ordinary salt – one of the most abundant, essential minerals on earth.), while power generation using coal creates acid rain Although factory chimneys producing black smoke are rare in most industrial nations these days, invisible pollutants may still enter the air, ground, or surface water. Even at low levels, they may cause harm, particularly in the long term.

Environmental law now requires industry to take more responsibility for any emissions that could harm the environment. Ongoing independent monitoring of the air and water supply are necessary to check for any breaches of the legislation. Cleaner technologies, including green chemistry, can reduce the production of pollutants from their source.

 

At this point, it is crucial to understand what are substances have played a major role in our history and have caused pollution over the centuries:

Coal was the predominant source of fuel. Its potential to pollute arises from its sulfur (S) content, which can be as high as 10%. Coal also contains significant amounts of toxic heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg), which remain in the ash when it is burned.

Oil began to grow in importance as a fuel in the early part of the twentieth century. By the 1940s, a massive petrochemical industry had grown up, using petroleum as a raw material for the synthesis of a range of new organic compounds, including plastics, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals.

Any modern industry has the potential to produce some pollution. Often this is in the form of wastewater that has been used in processing or for cleaning equipment and has thereby become contaminated with pollutants.

Some byproducts of industrial processes are polluting, such as the toxic dioxins (C4H4O2) produced in the manufacture of certain herbicides, or the acidic sulfur dioxide (SO2) produced by burning coal.

The paper and pulp industry has attracted criticism from environmental campaigners in the past over its use of chlorine as a bleaching agent. The chlorine combines with organic compounds in the wood to make a number of hazardous organochlorine compounds, including furans (C4H4O) and dioxins. There has been a move within the industry toward chlorine-free technology, but this is not yet universal.

The chemical industry has produced thousands of synthetic compounds with a very wide range of applications that are often taken for granted in everyday life.

These compounds are xenobiotics (SEE Vocabulary BANK at the bottom), which means they do not occur in nature and may take a long time to break down in the environment by microbial action.

One example would be the relative rates of decay of a paper bag and a plastic bag, left out to rot. Paper is based on cellulose, a natural material, and is therefore biodegradable. It will take two to five months to rot away, but the plastic bag will, according to laboratory estimates, take 500 to 1,000 years.

Plastic is not, in itself, harmful, so the main problem with plastic bags is that they take up space in expensive landfills. Other synthetic organic compounds pose a far greater threat to the environment.

This first lesson aims to generate a background knowledge with some details around industrial pollution which has an effect on different areas of our environment: soil, air and water. Obviously, the impact on humans and animals has been great over the centuries.

 

Activity: Children will be using the information collected during the teaching input + class sharing of previous knowledge to create a summary of what industrial pollution is. (Display for them on the board key vocabulary that they  want to use, but they might not remember).

Ext:

Children to write their impressions, what they think and feel on this topic and what could be done to change the present situation.

 

Vocabulary:

Chlorine is a naturally-occurring chemical element, one of the basic building blocks of matter. … Chlorine chemistry provides clean drinking water to millions around the globe. Clean drinking water made possible with chlorine disinfectants is a monumental triumph over the scourges of waterborne disease.

Sulfur: it is a substance that make coal content. Coal also contains significant amounts of toxic heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg), which remain in the ash when it is burned.

Compound: a thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.

Hazardous: dangerous

Xenobiotics: which means they do not occur in nature and may take a long time to break down in the environment by microbial action.

Microbial: microbes like bacteria