(Lesson 2) The Industrial Revolution and Its Inventions!

LI: To learn the inventions that made the industrial revolution possible.

What are we learning in history?

What does “Industrial Revolution” mean?

Why is called by historians like that?

When did exactly start this revolution: 17th or 18th century? Why are there different views?

In order to fully understand the industrial revolution and what it meant to people, the country and the economy, I think we should look at what the change possible. We know that in England there were a lot of minerals that people could extract with mine works, but what made everything even more revolutionary was the invention of machines.

The technology became more sophisticated and the use of metal made a big difference in the production of items compared to before where things were man-made, therefore it was time-consuming.


  • Canals were built to allow heavy goods to be moved easily where they were needed.

Bridgewater Canal - Virtual Cruise, Virtual Tour

The Bridgewater Canal, famous because of its commercial success, crossing the Manchester Ship Canal, one of the last canals to be built.

Bridgewater Canal timeline 1761 - 2020 | Est 1761 | The ...

  • The steam engine became the main source of power. It replaced horses and human labour.


Who Invented the Steam Engine? | Live Science

A Watt steam engine. James Watt transformed the steam engine from a reciprocating motion that was used for pumping to a rotating motion suited to industrial applications. Watt and others significantly improved the efficiency of the steam engine.

steam engine - definition, etymology and usage, examples and ...


  • Cheap iron and steel became mass-produced. Steel replaced wood as the material for building many of the new things.The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900The Bessemer Steel Process


  • Machine tools became commonplace. Things could now be mass-produced in factories instead of making them by hand.

Collection of machines from the industrial revolution, including ...

Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia

  • Seed drills and other agricultural machinery brought a British agricultural revolution. Fewer people were needed to work in farming, so many moved to towns and found new jobs in the factories although many of the new jobs were very harsh and dangerous.

Jethro Tull and the Invention of the Seed Drill

Inventor Jethro Tull invented the seed drill in 170. It was a ...

  • Railways were built all around England and then the world. They carried freight and passengers much more quickly and cheaply than before.


8 things you (probably) didn't know about the history of railways ...

Chief executives are ready to lead the fourth industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution Greeting Card for Sale by Ronald Lampitt


  • Steamships began to replace sailing ships. They could be larger and faster than sailing ships and did not depend on wind and weather.

The Open Door Web Site : History : The Industrial Revolution ...

Steamboat in the Industrial Revolution

  • The spinning Jenny and power loom made it easy to mass-produce clothes and fabrics.

Spinning Jenny

Spinning Jenny Invention in the Industrial Revolution - History ...

Spinning Jenny Industrial Revolution


Children will create an introduction paragraph where they are going to write about the changes introduced by the industrial revolution and they will draw and explain three innovative things from that time in their books.


Was the industrial revolution that society went through? Did man experience other industrial revolutions? What do you think?




(Lesson 1) Industrial Revolution

Industrial revolution animated word cloud, text design animation ...

LI: To learn about the industrial revolution.

What is the industrial revolution?

Why do we call it a revolution? What is a revolution?

Industrial Revolution was given historians to identify a large and rapid change in the way things were made.

This meant that instead of things being hand made in small workshops, they were made more cheaply in large quantities by machines in factories. Products being made in large quantities now meant that they were sold for less.

Many people began to move from an agricultural-based life in the country to the towns where the factories offered more and better-paid work. This is why towns began to develop on the territory as we know them now.

Why do you think the industrial revolution started?

Where and when did it start?


The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century. In particular, the County of Shropshire (West Midland) was important, for it had both minerals (e.g. iron ore and coal) and transport on thRiver Severn.

West Midlands (region) - Wikipedia

The revolution spread to Europe and the Americas, especially the United States, by the early 19th century. Samuel Slater, who had been an apprentice in an English cotton factory, disguised himself and came to America. He reconstructed a spinning machine from memory and built a factory of his own.

New ideas and inventions were also taken up and used in mining, the working of metals, and in the transport of goods. Around the same time new ideas in farming were leaving some farm workers without jobs. They added to the move to the industrial towns where they sought out work in factories.

Early steam engines like this one from 1817 were used in mines to pump out water and pump in air. This allowed deeper mining.

The most important new invention of the industrial revolution was the steam engine. The steam engine, improved by James Watt around 1776 was used to power the factories and pump out the deeper mines. It was also used in railway engines.

The heat from burning coal became the main source of power.


Historians believes that the Industrial Revolution happened in the 17th century, a period now called the Enlightenment, during which people asked more questions about the way the world worked. England also was a politically stable country throughout the 1700s with no wars at home (although it had many abroad). England was also lucky that it had many of the raw materials needed to make and power the new machines within its borders.

It also had an overseas empire that would buy the goods it made and provide it with a cheap source of other raw materials such as cotton and sugar. At the time of the industrial revolution slavery was practiced in many British Empire lands, this supplied a source for some of the money which could be spent on building the new industries. Also, England had much less land that could be farmed compared to other European countries.

What do you think about where the problems induced by this incredible transformation?

 Allow children to discuss in small and large groups and invite them to draw answers, and conclusions by reasoning on topics like demographic, economy, politics, moving from the countryside to towns, etc.


Let’s look at the issues that this revolution brought.


Living standards rose and people generally became richer and healthier and had more children who survived to be adults instead of starving.

Tenements - HISTORY

New York Tenement Apartment Photograph by Everett

The resulting population growth in England caused new problems. The environment was damaged.

2) working class | Tumblr (With images) | Russian revolution ...


Where only a few people had been rich because they owned land, now more became very rich thanks to the industry. More, however, were still poor and lived in poor conditions.

Social class pyramid Royalty Free Vector Image

Children and women had to work for a long time for little pay. Often several families crowded into very small apartments.

Hurrying - Wikipedia Industrial Revolution: Child Labor

Working at different times, family members would take turns sleeping when they were not working. Families were usually unable to get together. 12, 14, or even 18-hour workdays were common.

Industrialization Changes Life How were people's lives impacted by ...

Industrial Revolution brings New Problems and Solutions - World ...


Pollution in History

Let’s start the lesson with the following video, but highlight you need to be aware that this video is a satirical cartoon that shows the impact of men on the environment in an outrageous way:

Today, we will start looking at the first evidence of pollution in history, but before that, I would like to show you the time frame of the different ages or eras to understand when men might have started having an impact on the environment by polluting it.


= Stone Age

  • Paleolithic (ancient stone age), a period characterized by nomadism, hunting and gathering
  • Mesolithic (intermediate stone age), the transition period between Paleolithic and Neolithic
  • Neolithic (new stone age), from the Neolithic Revolution, which introduced agriculture, domestication, breeding, sedentary lifestyle habits

= Metal age

  • Copper age: from the first forms of metallurgy (Metallurgy is the use of metal to create objects)
  • Bronze age: from the use of bronze; (They excavated to find the metal and then they used fire to produce utensils and weapons)
  • Iron age: from the use of iron; (They excavated to find the metal and then they used fire to produce utensils and weapons)


= Ancient age: from the invention of writing (3500 BC) to the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 AD) (The constructions of buildings and cities)

= Medieval age: from the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 AD) to the discovery of America (1492)

= Modern age: from the discovery of America (1492) to the Industrial Revolution in1750 (This is the beginning of the world as we know it today.) and the French Revolution (1789)

= Contemporary age: from the French Revolution (1789) and from the Industrial Revolution (1850) to the present.

What is History?: Timelines

It is obvious that men began having an effect on the environment really early on. Nowadays, researchers have found out evidence of this in the glacial ice. This acts as a kind of historical record, capturing lead levels from the atmosphere over time in thin layers like rings on a tree. The results of this analysis suggest that lead levels have been remarkably high throughout the entire 2000-year period studied.

What do you think?

Is this possible?

How did they do it if they did not have the technology, the oil and the plastic we have nowadays?

Have you ever thought that pollution could have been not a modern outcome?

Other studies have confirmed that men began polluting 400,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found evidence in teeth of charcoal that came from burning fires in caves. This alongside burning trees and the animals’ urine and manure, that release substances in the soil as well as in the air, prove the impact of men since the Neolithic age.


Recreate the timeline you have seen today using drawing and adding some of the key information.

(If you are working from home, you can always send us your work so we can display it on our classroom blog.)


To write your impression and thoughts on this historical discovery. What do you think about it? Are you surprised, why? Would you look at historical events in a different way?

Here they are some examples for your task.

Mesozoic to Human Timeline Summary | History google, History ...

Meatless Monday MMtimeline_850pxtal - Meatless Monday

Evolution of life from single celled organisms - part 1 - vital ...

The Middle Ages in 3 1/2 minutes - YouTube


History of Pollution: What do I know?

history of pollution timeline | Timetoast timelines

LI: Does pollution have a historical development?

I would like you to think of pollution as a historical situation, condition, exactly like some of the events we have learned this year.

Does pollution have a history? If so, when do you think it started?

If pollution existed in the past, did cities, states and countries do anything about it?

Do you think pollution is strictly related to humans?

 By using all the questions above, ask children to reflect on this topic from the historical angle and ask them to create a What I know about the history of pollution” to find out what they think or already know on the topic.

Once you have completed your self-assessment knowledge, you will share it with the rest of the class. (If you are at home, you can do the same with your siblings or an adult.)

It is important to ensure that the discussion is fuelled by the teacher as children might not know much about it by asking questions such as the following:

Do animals pollute? (Animal farms may produce food, but they also produce massive amounts of animal waste like urine and manure that emit around 400 different harmful gases into the atmosphere)

When did men start polluting? (Some would assign it to the start of agriculture 11,000 years ago, while others tie it to the advent of the nuclear era in 1945, but most recognise the Anthropocene as beginning with the industrial revolution (1780s1830s).)

How could people pollute the environment 500 years ago?

Did they have cars? So, How did they affect the environment?

When did men begin their industrial societies? 

Let’s play the following video (Although the video is very interesting due to its contents and images, it is also quite long, therefore I would recommend skipping through if you like. There are key events in history that would be good for the children to learn and become aware):

This session aims to expose you to the idea that pollution has walked alongside the development of humanity to the present world since the first human clusters and their agriculture societies 11,000 years ago.


History Explorers

Today is our final history lesson on famous explorers!

You are on a boat when suddenly it is hit by lightning and has started to take on water. There is a desert island nearby and you have 60 seconds to decide which items you will take with you to survive. You only have space for four items. Once you have decided on your four items, you need to explain your choices.

Screenshot 2020-05-19 at 07.45.37

For a bit of a challenge, choose three numbers at random between one and ten. Once you have chosen your numbers, scroll down to see which challenges you have been dealt and how you overcame them! Share your answers in the comments section!

Screenshot 2020-05-19 at 07.51.02